Share
  • Writer

Kim Man Jung

  • Birth
    1637 ~ 1689
  • Occupation
    Scholar
  • First Name
    Man Jung
  • Family Name
    Kim
  • Korean Name
    김만중
  • ISNI

Description

  • Korean
  • English
  • 김만중(金萬重)

     

    ◆기본 정보

    김만중(金萬重, 1637∼1692)의 본관은 광산(光山), 자는 중숙(重淑), 호는 서포(西浦), 시호는 문효(文孝)이다. 조선 중기 예학(禮學)의 대가인 김장생(金長生)의 증손이자 병자호란으로 순절한 김익겸(金益兼)의 아들로 태어났다. 광성부원군(光城府院君) 김만기(金萬基)의 동생으로 숙종의 초비(初妃) 인경왕후(仁敬王后)의 숙부가 된다. 수필로 『서포만필(西浦漫筆)』을 저술했고, 문학사에서는 「구운몽(九雲夢)』과 『사씨남정기(謝氏南征記)』의 저자로 유명하다.

     

    ◆작가 생애

    김만중은 부친 김익겸(金益兼)이 병자호란(丙子胡亂) 당시 강화도에서 순절했기에 모친 해평윤씨(海平尹氏)에게 많은 영향을 받으면서 자랐다. 모친은 아들 김만기와 김만중을 키우는 데 많은 정성을 기울였다. 궁색한 살림에도 자식들의 공부를 위해 비싼 서책을 아낌없이 구해주었고 이웃에게 책을 빌린 뒤 손수 베껴 교본을 만들기도 했다. 모친의 희생적인 가르침은 김만중의 생애와 사상에 많은 영향을 끼쳤다.

    김만중은 1665년 장원급제하며 조정에 출사했다. 그러나 서인(西人)과 남인(南人)의 정치적 대립 속에 그의 벼슬살이 또한 순탄하지만은 않았다. 처음 정언(正言)‧교리(校理) 등의 벼슬을 역임했으나 1674년 갑인예송(甲寅禮訟)이 일어났고 남인과 대립하던 중 허적을 비판한 죄로 유배되었다. 1679년 조정에 복직한 뒤 경신환국(庚申換局) 이후 공조판서(工曹判書)‧대사헌(大司憲) 등의 벼슬에 올랐지만 1689년 기사환국(己巳換局) 무렵 다시 탄핵을 받고 남해에 유배되었다.

    김만중은 유배된 처지에서 「사씨남정기」를 저술했고, 홀로 남은 모친을 위로하기 위해 「구운몽」을 지었다. 그러나 얼마 후 모친이 병으로 세상을 떠났고 김만중은 유배된 처지라 모친의 장례식에 참석하지 못했다. 김만중은 모친의 상기(喪期)를 마치고 그해 1692년 남해의 적소에서 세상을 떠났다. 그가 생을 마감했던 유배지가 지금도 보존되어 전한다. 김만중은 1698년 관작이 복구되었고 1706년 효행에 대한 정표가 내려졌다.

     

    ◆작품 세계

    김만중의 저술로 개인 시문집을 정리한 『서포집(西浦集)』이 있고 이외에 수필로 지은 「서포만필」이 있으며 소설로 「구운몽」과 「사씨남정기」 등이 있다. 「서포만필」은 2권 1책으로 전하고, 소설 「구운몽」과 「사씨남정기」는 국문본과 한문본 및 목판본‧활자본‧필사본 등 다양한 형태로 전한다. 「서포만필」은 저자의 문학관을 살펴볼 수 있는 중요한 자료이고 두 편의 소설은 국문학사에서 중요한 위상을 점유하고 있다.

    이재(李縡)는 『삼관기(三官記)』에서 “효성이 지극했던 김만중이 모친을 위로하기 위하여 「구운몽」을 지었다”고 밝혔다. 육관대사(六觀大師)의 제자 성진(性眞)이 8선녀를 희롱한 죄로 인간 세상에 유배되어 양소유(楊少游)라는 인물로 태어나 살아가게 된 이야기이다. 양소유는 여러 난리를 평정하고 최고의 지위에 올라 8선녀의 후신인 8명의 여인들을 아내로 삼고 영화롭게 살았으나 만년에 인생무상을 느껴 8선녀와 함께 불문에 귀의하게 된다. 욕망과 이상을 꿈으로 풀어낸 몽유소설(夢遊小說)로 평가된다.

    「사씨남정기」는 줄여서 「남정기(南征記)」라고도 불리는 작품이다. 숙종이 인현왕후(仁顯王后)를 폐위시키고 희빈장씨(禧嬪張氏: 장희빈(張禧嬪))를 왕비로 맞아들이는 것을 반대하다가 남해로 유배되어 임금의 마음을 참회시키고자 쓴 소설로 알려져 있다. 중국 명나라의 유한림(劉翰林: 유연수(劉延壽))이라는 인물을 중심으로 덕성 있는 정실 사씨(謝氏)와 간악한 후실 교씨(喬氏)를 등장시켜 이야기를 전개했다. 훗날 숙종이 이 이야기를 읽고 인현왕후를 복위시켰다는 일화가 전한다.

    김만중은 『서포만필(西浦漫筆)』을 남겨 문학비평가로도 당대에 많은 영향을 끼쳤다. 『서포만필(西浦漫筆)』은 역사, 문학, 유가, 불교, 음양학, 천문학 등 다양한 분야에 걸쳐 사색하고 사회와 당대의 현실 문제를 연관시켜 비평한 시화(詩話)·비평(批評) 저술이다. 복고주의문학론을 주창했고 이는 정철의 가사작품을 칭찬하는 바탕이 되었다. 또한 고악부(古樂府)와 문선체(文選體)를 선호했고 품격과 기상을 중시했으며 개성을 추구하는 비평의 관점을 드러내었다.

     

    ◆특징 및 의의

    김만중은 당시 진보적인 문학이론을 제기하였다. 특히 국문 가사를 예찬한 논설은 상당히 앞선 이론으로 선각적 문학론을 담고 있다. 한자로 쓴 사대부들의 시문은 앵무새가 사람의 말을 흉내 내는 것과 같으며, 여항(閭巷)의 초동(樵童)이나 물긷는 아낙네들이 주고받는 소리가 비록 비속(鄙俗)하지만 그 참과 거짓을 논한다면 사대부들의 시부(詩賦)보다 낫다는 자국어 선언에 입각한 문학론은 주목을 요하는 부분이다. 이러한 논리에 근거하여 김만중은 정철(鄭澈)이 지은 「관동별곡(關東別曲)」‧「사미인곡(思美人曲)」‧「속미인곡(續美人曲)」을 가리켜 동방의 「이소(離騷)」라 칭하고, 좌해(左海)의 참된 문장이라고 극찬하였다. 한문을 다른 나라의 말로 보았다는 점에서 상당히 획기적인 발언이다.

    이에 따라 김만중은 스스로 「구운몽」과 「사씨남정기」 등의 한글 소설을 저술했는데, 이는 김시습(金時習)의 『금오신화(金鰲新話)』 이후 소설 문학에 전기를 마련한 작품으로 평가된다. 특히 「구운몽」은 후대 소설에 많은 영향을 끼쳤으니, 『옥루몽(玉樓夢)』과 『옥련몽(玉蓮夢)』 등은 「구운몽」의 영향을 받아 창작된 대표적인 저술이다. 「구운몽」은 저작 동기를 차치하더라도 이전에 있었던 다른 소설과 구별되는 새로운 형식의 작품으로 한국 고대소설 문학사에 있어 불후의 명작으로 손꼽힌다.

     

    ◆참고 문헌 및 사이트

    권순긍, 신동흔, 이형대, 정출헌, 조현설, 진재교, 「살아있는 고전문학 교과서」, 휴머니스트, 2011.

    안대회, 「17세기 비평사의 시각에서 본 김만중의 복고주의문학론」, 민족문학사연구 20호, 2002.

    정민, 「『서포만필』을 통해 본 김만중의 비평관점」, 한국언어문화, 22권, 2002.

    http://db.itkc.or.kr/dir/item?grpId=hj#dir/node?grpId=hj&itemId=MI&gubun=book&depth=3&cate1=Z&cate2=&dataGubun=서지&dataId=ITKC_MI_0416A [한국고전종합DB] 『서포집(西浦集)』 해제

    http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000846056 『두산백과』, 「사씨남정기(謝氏南征記)」

    http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000787995 『두산백과』, 「구운몽(九雲夢)」

    http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000787995 『두산백과』, 「김만중(金萬重)」

    http://encykorea.aks.ac.kr/Contents/Item/E0009082 [한국민족문화대백과] 김만중 [金萬重], [한국민족문화대백과] 서포만필 [西浦漫筆]

     

  • 1. Introduction

                 Kim Man-jung (金萬重, 1637-1692) belonged to the Kim clan of Gwangsan, and went by the pseudonyms Jungsuk (重淑) and Seopo (西浦), and the posthumous epithet Mun-hyo (文孝). He was the great-grandson of the godfather of mid- Joseon dynasty neo-Confucian studies, Kim Jang-saeng (金長生), and the son to Kim Ik-kyeom, who was martyrized during the Qing invasion of Joseon. Kim Man-jung’s niece and daughter to his older brother Kim Man-gi, would become Queen Ingyeon and first wife to King Sukjong. Kim Man-jung wrote the book of essays titled Seopomanpil (西浦漫筆 Essays by Kim Man-jung), and his claim to fame in the history of Korean literature is as the author of Guunnmong (九雲夢 The Nine Cloud Dream) and Sassinamjeonggi (謝氏南征記 Lady Sa’s Journey to the South).

    2. Life

                 Because Kim Man-jung’s father Kim Ik-kyeom died on Ganghwa Island during the Qing invasion of Joseon before he was born, Kim Man-jung was influenced heavily by his mother, Yun Haepyeong. In fact, his mother devoted herself to the upbringing of Kim Man-jung and his brother Kim Man-gi. Despite not having much money, she spared no expense when it came to buying books for her two sons, and went as far as to copy by hand books she had borrowed to make study materials for her sons. This sacrifice of hers influenced Kim Man-jung’s life greatly.

                 In 1665 Kim Man-jung received top scores in the civil service examinations and made his debut as a government official in the royal court. However, because of the political strife between the Westerns and the Southerners (two factions that existed in the Joseon dynasty), Kim Man-jung’s life as a government official would be far from easy. Despite taking posts at the government institutes in charge of overseeing education and the literary arts, in 1674 there was a controversy regarding funeral etiquette during King Hyeonjeong’s funeral—referred to as Gabinyesong (甲寅禮訟)—and during this conflict Kim Man-jung was exiled for opposing the Southerners and criticizing Heo Jeok, the leader of the Southerners. After being reinstated to the royal court in 1679, however, and after the Westerners ousted the Southerners and took control—an event commonly referred to as Gyeongshinhwanguk (庚申換局)—Kim Man-jung took the government positions of gongjopanseo (工曹判書) and daesaheon (大司憲), but in 1689 during an event known as Gisahwanguk (己巳換局), in which the Southerners took power once again, Kim Man-jung was again resigned from his posts and exiled, this time to Namhae.

                 During his exile, he wrote the work Guunmong to console his mother who was left all alone, as well as the work Sassinamjeonggi. However, not long after his second exile, his mother died of a disease and Kim Man-jung, still stuck in exile, was unable to attend his mother’s funeral. In 1692, the same year after completing the period of mourning following his mother’s death, Kim Man-jung died while at his place of exile in Namhae. The home which he stayed during his exile until his death still remains till this day. In 1698, Kim Man-jung’s official rank was restored, and in 1706 he was given a post-humous epithet in honor of his acts of filial piety.

    3. Works

                 Kim Man-jung’s works include a book of poems titled Seopojib (西浦集 Poems by Kim Man-jung), a book of essays titled Seopomanpil (西浦漫筆), and two novels, Guunmong and Sassinamjeonggi. Seopomanpil is organized into two sections spanning a single book, and his novels Guunmong and Sassinamjeonggi have been preserved in various forms, including copies in Hangeul and classical Chinese, as well as copies that have been produced via woodblock printing, hand copying, and traditional printing. Whereas Seopomanpil is an important document providing insight into the author’s views on literature, his two novels hold their own merit as important works in the history of Korean classics.

                 In his work Samgwangi (三官記 Record of the Three Senses), Chae Yi (李縡) said that “Kim Man-jung, who was extremely filially pious, wrote Guunmong to console his mother.” Guunmong is a story about Seong-jin (性眞), a disciple to Master Yukgwan (六觀大師), who is banished to the human world for engaging in worldly pleasures with 8 fairies, where he is reborn as man named Yang Soyu (楊少游). In his new life, Seong-jin (now Yang Soyu) engages in several wars and enjoys a luxurious life, rising to the highest ranks of government and taking 8 women (the reincarnation of the 8 fairies in his previous life) as his wives. But in the waning years of his life, he feels the transience of his life and decides to turn to the way of Buddha with his eight wives. This work is regarded as a work of mongyusoseol (夢遊小說), a genre of classical Korean fiction that plays out characters’ desires and ideals through dreams.

                 Sassinamjeonggi is sometimes just shortened to Namjeonggi (南征記 Journey to the South). Kim Man-jung, who was exiled for opposing the crowning of Lady Hui-bui Jang after King Sukjong deposed Queen Inhyeon, is said to have written Sassinamjeonggi in order to convince the king of his mistake. The story itself is set in the Ming dynasty and tells the story of Master Yu (劉翰林 or 劉延壽) and his first and second wives, the virtuous Lady Sa (謝氏) and the scheming Lady Kyo (喬氏), respectively. It is said that later, King Sukjong read the story and was so moved that he decided to reinstate Queen Inhyeon.

                 By writing Seopomanpil, Kim Man-jung also made a large impact on the times as a literary critic. The work is a piece that criticizes poetic discourse and criticism, and muses on a wide variety of topics—including, history, literature, Confucian scholars, Buddhism, the study of Yin-yang, and astronomy—while at the same time connecting them to society and the reality of the times. The work advocates a revivalist or nativist approach toward literature, and this became the basis for his praise of Jeong Cheol’s gasa, a form of poetry that were commonly sung during the Joseon dynasty. In addition to this, he displayed a preference for goakbu (古樂府 old-fashioned akbu) and munseonchae (文選體), valued dignity and vigor, and praised literary criticism that pursued individualism.

    4. Style and Legacy

                 Kim Man-jung offered a progressive literary theory for the time. In particular, his ideas which admired gasa written in hangeul were before their time and contained pioneering literary concepts. Comparing poems written by nobility in classical Chinese to parrots that mimic human speech, Kim Man-jung even said that, although crude is the language used by boy woodcutters from the common sector and wives at the well to fetch water, when it came to discussing candidly matters of truth and fiction, such language was preferable to Chinese poetry written by the nobility—demonstrating how much his ideas on literature and language valued native vernacular. And based on these ideas, Kim Man-jung even pointed to certain works by Jeong Cheol—such as “Gwandongbyeolgok” (關東別曲Song of Gwandong), “Samiingok” (思美人曲 Song of Longing for My King), and “Songmiingok” (續美人曲 Sequel to Song of Longing for My King)—and praised them as works of true Korean literature. His viewing of classical Chinese as another country’s language was truly ground-breaking.

                 Not surprisingly, Kim Man-jung composed Sassinamjeonggi and Guunmong in hangeul, a feat which has been praised as laying the ground work for the novels that came after Kim Si-seup’s “Geumoshinhwa” (金鰲新話 New Tales of Mount Geumo). Guunmong in particular has influenced the works of later generations, inspiring such works as “Ongnyumong” (玉樓夢 Dream of a Jade Palace) and “Ongnyeonmong” (玉蓮夢 Dream of a Jade Lotus). Regardless of Kim Man-jung’s motivations for writing the novel, because it takes such a distinctive form in comparison to the novels that came before it, Guunmong is an immortal masterpiece in the literary history of classical Korean novels.

    5. References

    1. Sun-geung Kwon, Dong-heun Shin, Hyeong-dae Lee, Chul-heon Jeong, Hyeon-seol Cho, Jae-gyo Jin. The Living Textbook of Korean Classics. Humanist Books, 2011.

    2. Ahn, Dae-hwa. “Kim Man-jung’s Revivalist and Nativist Literary Theory in the Context of the History of 17th Century Literary Criticism.” Journal of Korean Literary History 20, 2002.

    3. Jeong, Min. “Kim Man-jung’s Views of Criticism as They Appear in Seopomanpil.” Journal of Korean Language and Culture 22, 2002.

    4. “Seopojib.” Database of Korean Classics. Institute for the Translation of Korean Classics:

    http://db.itkc.or.kr/dir/item?grpId=hj#dir/node?grpId=hj&itemId=MI&gubun=book&depth=3&cate1=Z&cate2=&dataGubun=서지&dataId=ITKC_MI_0416A 

    5. “Sassinamjeonggi.” Doopedia. Doosan Corporation:

    http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000846056 

    6. “Guunmong.” Doopedia. Doosan Corporation:

    http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000787995 

    7. “Kim Man-jung.” Doopedia. Doosan Corporation:

    http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000787995

    8. “Seopomanpil.” Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. The Academy of Korean Studies.

    http://encykorea.aks.ac.kr/Contents/Item/E0009082 

     

Translated Books (32)

E-Book (2)

News from Abroad (8)

Report/Texts (1)